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Where are the adrenal glands situated?

A: Answer Either of two small endocrine glands, one located above each kidney. The kidney...


can you tell me what this means?1. specimen: right breast mass core biopsy, pre-operative diagnosis: right breast mass. microscopic description: there is a pleomorphic high-grade lesion characterized by malignant epithelioid cells with abundant cytoplasm intermixed with a high-grade spindle cell component. The admixture of carcinoma and spindle cells can be seen metaplastic carcinomas, carcinosarcoma type. by immunostains, the epithelioid neoplastic cells are positive for cytokeratin. estrogen and progesterone receptors are negative. her2/neu overexpression is negative ( score 1 + ).diagnosis: breast, right mass, core biopsy: high grade carcinoma with metaplastic features. by immunostains the neoplastic cells are negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors. her2/neu overexpression is negative (score 1+).2. cliniical information: right breast cancer.microscopic examination:part Imicroscopic examination reveals multiple levels of lymph node cross section. the lymph node contains benign lymphocytic forms. no metastatic carcinoma is detected. broad spectrum keratin is negative for occult metastasis.part IImicroscopic of the nipple reveals an unremarkable nipple is cross section. examination of the tumor reveals a tumor composed of proliferating cells forming large sheets with limited tubular forms. these sheets are composed of cells with moderate clear cytoplasm and nuclei showing thickening borders with clear muclear material, a sprinkling of darker chromatin and often eosinophilic nucleoli. the tumor shows widespread dedifferentiation into spindle-formed cells showing giant and multinucleated cells. mitotic figures are easily found, particularly in these dedifferentiated areas. no specific lymphatic, venous or perineural invasion is detected. examination of additional tissue away from the mass shows clear tumortype cells lining ducts and lobular structures. focal microcalcifications are found within these areas. examination of an additional lymph node shows the lymph node to be composed of benign lymphocytic forms and negative for metastatic disease. broad spectrum keratin performed on the lymph node is negative for occult metastatic. era, pra and her2/neu immunohistochemical stains show era and pra to be negative and her2/neu is negative with a sore of 0.diagnosis:axillary lumph node, sentinel lymph node biopsy #1, benign lymph node, negative for metastasis.right breast, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, clear cell pattern, with sarcomatous dedifferentiation and ductal and lobular extension, maximum diameter of tumor 3.2cm; nottingham score: tubular formation 3, nuclear pleomorphism 3 and mitotic count score 2, overall grade 3; no venous, lymphatic or perineural invasion detected; microcalcifications present;staging: T2NOMX.comment: the histology of this tumor is very unusual for a breast primary and metastatic renal cell carcinoma should be ruled out. GCDFP-15 immunohistochemical stain which is commonly positive in about 70% of breast tumors is negative. this enhances the possibility of this tumor being metastatic.3. ct abdomen with and without iv contrast-ct pelvis with iv contrastdiscussion: pre and post iv contrast scans through the abdomen, post iv contrast scans through the pelvis, oral contrast given. triangular density measuring 2 x 0.8 cm left lung base along the major fissure, most likely pleural parenchymal scarring. liver, spleen, kidneys, gallbladder, pancreas and right adrenal gland are unremarkable. there is mild nodularity of the left adrenal gland with nodular component measuring approximately 1.4 cm in diameter. this is nonspecific. suggest followup. accurate hounsfield units of the left adrenal nodule on the pre or post contrast scans are not accurate given the relative small size. status post right mastectomy.impression: 1.4 cm nocule left adrenal gland, nonspecific. consider followup ct or mri and indicated.4. report after special stains:two immunoperoxidase stains for mammaglobin are performed. the vast majority of the tumor cells are negative, although there are a few, probably 1% or less, that are positive. therefore, a primary breast carcinoma is a possibility, although the tumor, as has been previously reported, is negative for er, pr. her-2, and gross cystic disease fluid protein. if this is a breast carcinoma then it is a very unusual clear cell carcinoma with pseudosarcomatous areas (metaplastic carcinoma).not sure about what kind of cancer this is and has it spread or not?no chemo at this time, come back in 4 months to check on adrenal gland.does this sound right to you?thank you for your time

A: you have a very complicated case and it is worthy for you to consider getting a formal opinion at a comprehensive cancer center-- at a minimum having your pathology re-reviewed because there are still questions as to what the primary tumor IS-- breast vs adrenal gland vs something else. Based on the pathology description you have typed here, they are strongly questioning if the tumor originated in the breast since the stains are implying it may not be breast cells. so pursue this....


My wife has been MBC in the bone for the past 1.5 years. She is currently taking Arimidex which, going by the lastest ca15.3 result is failing her as it has risen from what was a steady 69 to a count of 650. She started taking Arimidex in January 2005 and her tumour marker remained reasonably stable until November 2005. In August 2005 she began menstruating and was admitted into hospital for a D&C and was given progesterone 5milx 3times a day. Her Cancer is Her2- estrogen+ and progesterone+. We understand that the cancer is driven by Estrogen and that the Arimidex was prescribed as an aromatase blocker starving the cancer. We have discussed further treatment for the disease with our Oncologist and we undertsand the options are to try more hormonal therapy drugs.(we believe exemestane will be prescibed). Regarding the hormonal treatment route we understand that such drugs will supposedly block the peripheral production of estrogen, we have also heard that another way to reduce the bodies production of estrogen is to remove the adrenal glands. Is it absured to suggest that to further lower estrogen other such producing factories such as the endocrine system and the pituitary glands be removed or would their removal cause too many associated functional problems and complication. We have heard from an eminent oncologist (now retired) that he has in the past removed the adrenal glands with long term success for the mortality rate. Thanks for your time and attention

A: i personally have never seen adrenal glands removed for this purpose. adrenal glands have important functions and such a surgery may do more harm than good....


how can adrenal gland fatigue be reversed nutritionally using simple herbs,natur

A: Eat REAL FOOD and as much organic food as possible. Eat high quality protein: fish, turkey, chicken, lamb, buffalo, ostrich; plenty of low starch veggies--lots of dark, leafy greens, low glycemic fruits--berries, kiwi, red grapefruit AFTER the meal and not by themselves; snack on sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, macadamia nuts, walnuts, brazil nuts. Eating 4-5 small meals spread throughout the day is helpful. AVOID LIKE THE PLAGUE: sugar, corn syrup, high fructose corn syrup, white flour products, processed foods, foods with artifical preservatives and coloring, corn, potatos, dried fruit, fruit juices and fruit drinks, sodas, caffeine, carbonated beverages. Drink high quality spring water. When the adrenal glands are fatigued there are...

Causes and Symptoms of adrenal Gland Malfunction

A: The adrenal glands sit on top of the kidneys. Their chief function is to deal with stress by releasing hormones, including epinephrine and adrenaline. When the gland or glands, malfunction, they can release too much of these into the system, putting the body on a stimulus overload which is dangerous to the heart and the rest of the body. If they do not release the necessary hormones, the body will be in distress as well. Interestingly, the glands are affected directly by stress and the symptoms of malfunction of this gland appear to cause undue stress to the body as well. This is why adrenal glands are closely related...


What are the affects of smoking a few puffs of organic marijuana 2-3 times a week on the functioning of adrenal glands

A: heres one goldie080 said: 1 Maybe the glands start seeing elaborate designs? I dunno, lol. Sign in to report abuse or send a compliment 20 months ago Predator said: 2 ''Effects'', not ''affects''. Two different meanings entirely. Using any substance not normally required by the body can have negative effects on any number of your organs and glands, such as the


My Mom 71 yrs old, was in good health, recently has been diagnosed with metastatic cancer 5/06 to the adrenal gland, bones, liver, lymph node and lungs. Recently had a biopsy 5/06 which confirmed she had cancer to the lymph node. She was diagnosed with BC in 9/2003, had lumpectamy 11/2003. She now has pnemonia. Oncologist is giving her Arimidex for the time being. Trying to get a 2nd outside opinion for Metastatic Cancer but having issue''s. PET scan of 4/06 states Suspicious of - Metastatic Cancer, and Oncologist states Diagnosed as - Metastatic Cancer; we are confused, and prior CT scans in 6/04 stated Suspicious of, yet PET of 7/04 ruled out any Metastatic Cancer that she had cysts to the adrenal Gland, Liver and Lungs, and Arthritis to the Back. Oncologist is stating she offered MOM Chemotherapy after first lumpectamy and MOM declined - this is not the case - Oncologist only offered Flamara and Radiation, and stated that my MOM did not need Chemotherapy - I know, I was there, and not shocked that the Dr. is covering her tracks. Need help for 2nd opinion through Aetna Primecare -California to City of Hope - any suggestions as to what we can do, what she needs to do. Mom is going full organic and she is reading alot of how to survive naturally. HELP...

A: not sure how to help regarding second opinion. See if you have a local chapter of the komen foundation or american cancer society to be a patient advocate for your mom and help with this. Her situation sounds very serious... you can''t do anything about the past at this moment... no way to rewind the videotape of her life. just press forward and see what treatments can be offered to buy her some quality of life time....

My mother after twenty years had a reoccurance of breast cancer in the same breast. She couldn''t do radiation therapy or chemo obviously, since it is a reoccurance. She also has had several bleeds in her head over the past 6 years due to either her blood pressure problem or a possibly a disease called amyloid angiopathy. Two of which almost killed her. Most recent bleed was a size of an orange in her intelligence area the christmas before last. However, she made it through...miraculously with only the side affect of some confusion at times or short term memory. Last month, when diagnosed with breast cancer again in her same breast that had the occurance 20 years ago, Mom wanted to have a double masectomy for preventative measures because she is 70 and didn''t want to have to go through the operation again in future with the thoughts that she could be more at risk for surgical problems due to her age and stroke history. However, the night before surgery we found out that her brother who had throat cancer, had a the problem that anesthetiologists fear called something like malignant hypothermia or something?? So we didn''t want her to be under the anesthetia longer than she had to. With her past stroke issues...we thought it would be wise to take it slow and since her other breast had no sign of malignancy...we wanted her to just do the one. This is what she did and the anesthesiologist was able to give her a drip which was less problematic due to her family history. I was just told tonight that oncology wants her to go on femara 5 years and fosomax (because she has osteopenia in her spine). They also told me after taking a body scan they found a mass in her right abdominal adrenal gland but everything else looked clear. They said they would check this mass 3 months from now. I was concerned. Do you think she should have a biopsy sooner? A lot can happen in 3 months. What could this mean a mass? At one point they thought she had amyloid angiopathy...could it be a bleed there? Or could there be a blood clot from her just going through masectomy a month ago? She has never had any other surgeries or problems with her abdomen...so I wonder what this could mean? When they did her masectomy, her cancer was 1.3 (first stage). They did not know if it was the same strand of cancer that she had 20 years ago because we didn''t have the records. They said the margins were clean when they removed it. They also said out of the remaining nodes that they took out...they seemed clean as well (however since she had radiation on that site before...I was told that reading isn''t always clear). I am concerned to how serious could a mass can be in this area and how common it is? Alot can happen in 3 months and I wonder why they are more concerned to take a biopsy now? We live in SC and it is already a chore to go to Fla. where she gets checked. It would be even harder to go to you all. In light of recieveing this kind of news...What would you suggest? What could this mean having a mass in this area?? I Thank you... so so so very much for all your help

A: don''t assume that the finding on the adrenal gland is breast cancer related or cancer related. doing a biopsy of the adrenal gland is far trickier than having a double mastectomy so they are being cautious in waiting. given it has been 20 years this would be classified as new primary in her breast and not actually a recurrence of the original disease. the risk to her other breast remains small. though not a candidate for radiation due to having had radiation before, women are always candidates for some type of chemo when disease springs up again, if it is felt to be appropriate to do. her cerebral bleeds make it unlikely that this would be recommended though. hormonal therapy is commonly given for someone in her situation. even if the

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